Assignment: Scandinavian Narcolepsy
Assignment: Scandinavian Narcolepsy
Bilal, Ivona, Kieu & Liam
You are GP in a busy community practice. A patient who is eligible for the Flu vaccine comes to receive her annual jab. She can’t understand why she needs to get this every year and wants to get a one shot to protect her permanently. How would you advise her and what the possibilities for one shot vaccine?
Types of influenza virus
There are 3 types of influenza:
Influenza A which affects Birds and mammals
Influenza B and influenza C infect humans only
Mention why A, B and C are different3
Aussies are used to predict suspected prominent strains
Doesn’t always work
Low efficacy amongst certain demographics
Countries with Clear winter to predict seasonality
countries that do not have clear seasons suffer with a year round dominant strain
Transmission: Spread up to 6 feet,
When infected people cough, sneeze, touch or talk
Also via contaminated objects (Formites)
Social patterns (i.e. during school holiday reduce transmission)
Usually replicates throughout respiratory tree in epithelial cells .
Mild cases would affect upper respiratory tree, if left untreated, the illness could spread to the lower part of the respiratory tract (pneumonia).
Diagnostic tests include: Accurate tests use RT-PCR alongside immunohistochemical tests for confirmation
Build up of mucous in airways (coryza)
Inflammation of upper respiratory
Spanish flu: 1918 – 50 to 100 million people world wide died as result
Killed young and healthy adults as well as those at risk – major pandemic
Can develop into pneumonia, bronchitis, aveolitis sinusitis and pulmonary oedema and pulmonary haemorrhage.
Even if eradicated in Humans there is still Animal reservoirs
– In Novgorod, Russia, teachers in classrooms with students that were vaccinated and unvaccinated were protected
Get flu- like symptoms
Reduces risk of flu illness by 40-60% in the overall population during season when most flu viruses are well matched to the flu vaccine
Definition: Flu shot against 3 strains of influenza expected to circulate throughout flu season (one type B, two type A)
Standard-dose trivalent shots
A high dose trivalent shot
Recombinant trivalent shot that is egg free
Definition: Flu shot against 4 strains of influenza expected to circulate throughout flu season (two type B, and two type A)
Quadrivalent flu shots
An interdermal quadrivalent flu shot
A recombinant quadrivalent flu shot
“Universal” flu vaccine that protects against all human influenza strains, which means for influenza A, main strains, bird flu, as well as past pandemic strains
Why can’t it work
Antigenic variation that occurs within the strains of influenza which can to a variety of subtypes
Animal reservoir and mixing vessels
Mixing vessels: theory within pigs that genetic assortment can occur between avian and human
Provides strength and rigidity
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